Cultural Resources

Long-Term Management Strategies for USS Arizona, a Submerged Cultural Resource in Pearl Harbor - Report, 2008 (Legacy 05-170) pdf [8.90 MB]

This file consists of chapters 1-4 of a report describing a project funded under numbers: 02-170, 03-170, 04-170, and 05-170. The project's primary focus was to acquire requisite data for understanding and characterizing the complex corrosion and deterioration processes affecting Arizona's hull. The information was then fed into a model to predict the nature and rate of structural changes resulting from corrosion in order to inform management actions. National Park Service - Submerged Resource Center.

Long-Term Management Strategies for the USS Arizona: A Submerged Cultural Resource in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii - Report, 2003 (Legacy 03-170) pdf [1.37 MB]
Long-Term Management Strategies for the USS Arizona: A Submerged Cultural Resource in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii - Report, 2002 (Legacy 02-170) pdf [3.53 MB]
USS Monitor 2001 Project: Engine Recovery - Fact Sheet, 2008 (Legacy 01-126) pdf [282 KB]

The ironclad USS Monitor sank off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, in 1862 in a storm and was discovered in 1973. By the early 1990s, the remains were rapidly disintegrating, and this fact sheet discusses the project to prepare the steam engine for recovery, recover the engine, adjust the armor belt support, make progress toward uncovering the turret, and recovering other artifacts in the immediate area. David Alberg. 

Submerged Cultural Heritage Training - Presentation (Legacy 07-324) pdf [2.05 MB]

This presentation discusses the importance of submerged cultural resources, laws governing submerged cultural resources, why raising artifacts is not advisable, how to identify shipwreck sites, and resources for further information. Benjamin Louis Ford.

Conservation of H.L. Hunley and its Associated Artifacts - Report, 2006 (Legacy 05-106) pdf [941 KB]

This report describes work performed in 2005 to assess corrosion of the submarine's hull, which led to the expansion of the H.L. Hunley's cathodic protection system to the interior of the submarine's ballast tanks. A significant number of complex and fragile artifacts associated with the Hunley were conserved. James W. Hunter III.

Conservation of H.L. Hunley and its Associated Artifacts - Fact Sheet, 2009 (Legacy 05-106) pdf [42 KB]
H.L. Hunley Project: 2004 Archaeological Findings and Progress Report - Report, 2005 (Legacy 04-106) pdf [838 KB]

This report discusses the foci of the project in 2004: the ongoing forensic research of the vessel's crew, interment of the remains, completion of the excavation of the submarine's interior, and the documentation of artifacts recovered during the excavation. The objective of the year's work was to gather data sufficient to answer critical questions about the H.L. Hunley crewmen and what happened to them and their vessel. Maria Jacobsen.

H.L. Hunley Project: Conservation Achievements 2004 - Summary, 2005 (Legacy 04-106) pdf [1.61 MB]
Conservation and Management Strategies Applied to Post-Recovery Analysis of the American Civil War Submarine H.L. Hunley (1864) - Article, 2004 pdf [636 KB]

This article from The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology describes the excavation and technological advancements developed to work with this complex and unstable iron vessel, including discussions of impressed current technologies, automated tank controls and water monitoring systems, laser mapping, fiber optics, database management, in situ x and gamma rays, molding and protection of fragile archaeological features, and protocols for moving artifacts to the laboratory. Paul Mardikian.

A Proposal to Safely Recover the H.L. Hunley Submarine Located in Charleston, South Carolina - Report, 1999 (Legacy 00-106) pdf [7.07 MB]

This proposal discusses the drawbacks of the then-proposed method of lifting the H.L. Hunley from its resting place through a system of straps and outlines a procedure for a mechanical device to scoop up the submarine and its supporting surrounding sediment. The proposal includes a timetable for construction, testing, demonstration, and actual recovery of the Hunley. Robert M. Adams.

H.L. Hunley General Recovery Procedures - Plan, 2000 (Legacy 00-106) pdf [83.03 MB]

This document describes a detailed plan of the recovery procedure for the H.L. Hunley. Oceaneering International, Inc.

H.L. Hunley Site Assessment - Report, 1998 (Legacy 97-106) pdf [17.11 MB]

This report discusses the survey operations conducted over the area using nondestructive remote sensing instrumentation, excavation procedures, analyses of cultural materials recovered or observed in situ and the associated contextual environment. It also presents the rationale for recommended site-treatment options. National Park Service, Naval Historical Center, and South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology.

Archaeological Investigation and Remote Operated Vehicle Documentation: Confederate Commerce Raider CSS Alabama - Report, 2004 (Legacy 02-109) pdf [7.52 MB]

This report presents a discussion of the diving operations, artifact recovery, and imaging of the CSS Alabama conducted in French waters in 2002. Efforts were hampered by technical and weather difficulties. Gordon P. Watts, Jr.

Investigation of the CSS Alabama - Report, 2000 (Legacy 00-109) pdf [6.30 MB]

This document reports the activities undertaken during the 2000 investigation of the CSS Alabama, a Confederate commerce raider that sank in a channel off the Normandy Peninsula in 190 feet of water. The paper describes the work, including recovery of a cannon, use of underwater TV to record the exposed wreck structure, recovery of exposed artifacts, steps taken to package and send artifacts to Charleston, South Carolina, for conservation, collection of data for a video mosaic, recordation of the propeller and lifting mechanism, reconnaissance of the bow, and a description of the recovered artifacts. Gordon P. Watts, Jr.

Report on the Reconnaissance Investigation of the CSS Alabama - Report, 1999 (Legacy 99-1880) pdf [859 KB]

The report discusses the background (discovery of the ship), ownership, French jurisdiction, required permissions and agreements necessary to undertake reconnaissance, funding, equipment, and the results of the two-day reconnaissance. Gordon P. Watts, Jr.

A Management Plan for Known and Potential United States Navy Shipwrecks in South Carolina - Report, 2004 (Legacy 98-1725) pdf [17.07 MB]

This report builds on a multi-year effort to 1) compile historic and cultural data of U.S. Navy vessels lost in South Carolina waters to document the losses and subsequent wreck history of each vessel, which was used to update the Naval Historical Center's database of shipwrecks, and 2) conduct remote sensing operations on a limited number of shipwreck sites and areas of naval activities, primarily from the Civil War. A detailed inventory was produced, and the document includes a brief history of U.S. Navy presence in South Carolina and recommendations for the management of these resources. Christopher F. Amer, Joseph Beatty III, Lynn B. Harris, Carleton Naylor, James D. Spirek, and Mark K. Ragan.

A Historic Archaeological Resources Protection Plan and Geographic Information System for Shipwrecks in Virginia Waters Under the Jurisdiction of the United States Navy - Report, 2004 (Legacy 98-1725) pdf [8.66 MB]

The territorial waters of Virginia contain several thousand historically significant shipwrecks from over 400 years of occupation and development by Europeans. This GIS and HARP are tools to effectively protect and manage these resources by locating and assessing submerged shipwreck resources that could be impacted by development and other activities. Gordon P. Watts, Jr.

The Penobscot Expedition Archaeological Project: Field Investigations 2000 and 2001 - Report, 2003 (Legacy 01-133) pdf [7.03 MB]

This is the final report of a site assessment and multi-component remote-sensing survey of the Penobscot River, Penobscot County, Maine. The project was part of an ongoing effort to research, investigate, and document shipwrecks and other submerged archaeological sites associated with the Penobscot Expedition of 1779, and ultimately develop a management plan for their protection and preservation. James W. Hunter III.

The Penobscot Expedition Archaeological Project Field Investigation Video 1 - Video (Legacy 01-133) WMV [15.54 MB]
The Penobscot Expedition Archaeological Project Field Investigation Video 2 - Video (Legacy 01-133) WMV [6.20 MB]
The Penobscot Expedition Archaeological Project Field Investigation Video 3 - Video (Legacy 01-133) WMV [6.24 MB]
The Penobscot Expedition Archaeological Project Field Investigation Video 4 - Video (Legacy 01-133) WMV [11.43 MB]
Valcour Bay Research Project: 1999-2002 Results from the Archaeological Investigation of a Revolutionary War Battlefield in Lake Champlain, Clinton County, New York - Report, 2003 (Legacy 02-162) pdf [7.60 MB]

This report discusses a project to map and otherwise document a submerged Revolutionary War battlefield where General Benedict Arnold intentionally destroyed five of his own vessels to deprive the British of battle prizes. The project was designed to systematically map the submerged Valcour Island battlefield while providing sport divers a way to channel their interest in history and archaeology into a formally permitted project. Arthur B. Cohn, Adam I. Kane, Christopher R. Sabick, and Edwin R. Scallon.

Underwater Cultural Resources Management and Protection: U.S. Navy Shipwrecks in Hawaiian Waters, an Inventory of Submerged Naval Properties - Report, 2003 (Legacy 01-121) pdf [808 KB]

This survey report summarizes all known information for submerged U.S. naval properties in the vicinity of the Hawaiian Islands, based on various published and unpublished documents, oral reports, previously completed archaeological investigations, and archival resources. The report includes background information on the environmental setting of Hawaii, prehistoric and historic contexts, potential National Register nominations, and management recommendations. Hans K. Van Tilburg.

Archaeological Remote Sensing Survey of Operation Neptune: The D-Day Landings at Omaha and Utah Beaches, Normandy, France - Report, 2002 (Legacy 01-131) pdf [15.18 MB]

This report discusses a 3-year remote sensing survey off the Normandy coast to obtain additional information on U.S. naval losses during Operation Neptune. The Navy History Center will use this data to create a cultural resources management planning document and gain future research baseline data to evaluate site significance. Robert S. Neyland and James S. Schmidt.

Galley Congress Inspection Report - 2001 (Legacy 01-162) pdf [416 KB]

The galley Congress was one of five vessels burned in Arnold Bay, Panton, Vermont, in 1776 by Benedict Arnold to prevent their capture by the British. This report of a 2001 inspection of the remains of the Congress discusses the documentation and measurement of scattered parts of the boat and records observations regarding the stability of the site, including the presence of zebra mussels. Arthur B. Cohn. 

USS Tecumseh Shipwreck: Management Plan - Report, 1996 (Legacy 94-1704) pdf [25.89 MB]

The Union ship USS Tecumseh was sunk off Fort Morgan in Mobile Bay, Alabama, in 1864 and found by the Smithsonian in 1967. The USS Tecumseh Commission met in 1993 to discuss the future management and protection of the shipwreck, and this draft plan addressing the ship not as an isolated site but within its historical, geographical, and technological context was produced, the report outlines options and recommendations for the protection and preservation of this tomb of 93 Union sailors. W. Wilson West, Jr.

U.S. Navy Shipwrecks and Submerged Naval Aircraft in Washington: An Overview - Report, 1996 (Legacy 98-0856) pdf [5.21 MB]

The report includes a summary of the Navy's presence in the state of Washington, including various naval installations (e.g., Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and Naval Air Stations Seattle, Whidbey Island, and Pasco). The report describes the archival research conducted to account for and characterize the US Navy shipwrecks and submerged aircraft in Washington waters. David Grant, Colt Denfeld, and Randall Schalk.

Perspectives in Underwater Archaeology - Report pdf [142 KB]

This report is an overview of the Naval Historical Center's underwater archaeology branch’s duties and responsibilities in regard to sunken vessels and submerged aircraft. The paper discusses future activities. Bob Neyland.