Cultural Resources

Unspoken Messages - Basque Arborglyphs: Methods for Recording and Documenting Arborglyphs on Department of Defense Land - Report, 2008 (Legacy 07-359) pdf [15.22 MB]

This report describes the project focused on presenting a consistent method for recording tree carvings created by Basque shepherds. The study presents a thematic landscape approach that will facilitate a programmatic approach to determining NRHP eligibility for historic aspen tree carvings (arborglyphs) found on Department of Defense (DoD) properties. Joxe Mallea-Olaetxe and Judy Berryman.

Unspoken Messages - Basque Arborglyphs: Methods for Recording and Documenting Arborglyphs on Department of Defense Land - Fact Sheet, 2009 (Legacy 07-359) pdf [69 KB]
Historic Context for Historic Period Archaeological Sites on Virginia's Coastal Plain - Report, 2007 (Legacy 05-262) pdf [4.40 MB]

This report synthesizes archaeological data from nineteenth and early twentieth-century sites that have been identified and/or studied in the Coastal Plain of Virginia. The document focuses on the Antebellum (1830-1860) and Postbellum (also known as Reconstruction and Growth) eras (1865-1917) because the associated sites are frequently difficult to evaluate since the significant research issues that are applicable have not been well-defined. James Rosenthal and Elizabeth Monroe.

Historic Context for Historic Period Archaeological Sites on Virginia's Coastal Plain - Fact Sheet, 2009 (Legacy 05-262) pdf [41 KB]
Late Holocene Paleoclimatic Stress and Prehistoric Human Occupation on San Clemente Island - Report, 2000 (Legacy 91-083/91-473) pdf [5.36 MB]

This doctoral dissertation discusses a study supporting the thesis that adverse paleoenvironmental conditions during the late Holocene appear to have notably influenced prehistoric cultural evolution in the Southern California Bight region. Radiocarbon dating confirmed changes in prehistoric settlement patterning, indicating a movement toward more reliable water sources, during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (AD 650-1250). Andrew Yasko III.

The Beartail Rockshelter Legacy Project - Report, 1997 (Legacy 95-0597) pdf [9.00 MB]

This report describes excavations over three seasons at Beartail Rockshelter at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, including the natural and cultural history of the region with an emphasis on the late Pleistocene and early Holocene environmental and cultural setting for the area; a review and discussion of the material remains recovered from the excavations; discussion of several special analyses including palynological study, radiocarbon dating, and geomorphological analysis of site sediments; and discussion of the investigation's contributions to our understanding of regional cultural and environmental history. Charles M. Hubbert, Michael B. Collins, Scott C. Meeks, and Catherine C. Meyer.

Rock Art Study on DoD Property Located in LANTOPS, EFA Chesapeake, and NORTHDIV Areas of Responsibility - Report, 1997 (Legacy 94-0021) pdf [10.36 MB]

This report provides information intended to sensitize CRMs in the DoD to the presence of rock art on installations in all regions of the U.S. The document 1) defines the general characteristics of rock art sites in the northeastern U.S., 2) provides a regional context and predictive model for rock art in the study area, 3) analyzes potential threats to rock art sites as a result of military, civilian, or natural activities or factors, and 4) develops recommendations for managing rock art sites on military installations, including techniques for site identification, recordation, and preservation (a basic reference for CRMs on DoD installations within the study region). Christopher R. Polglase, Clement W. Meighan, and Martha R. Williams.

Rock Art Study on DoD Property Located in LANTOPS, EFA Chesapeake, and NORTHDIV Areas of Responsibility - Fact Sheet, 2012 (Legacy 94-0021) pdf [250 KB]
Archaeology and Bioarchaeology of the Northern Woodlands - Report, 1997 (Legacy 94-0008) pdf [9.29 MB]

This overview study is intended to provide a summary of what is known about the archaeology of Wisconsin, Iowa, and Minnesota as an aid to CRMs. After reviewing the physical setting, culture history, and bioarchaeology of the region by state, a final integrative chapter proposes a series of adaptation types which crosscut traditional political and temporal boundaries. Elizabeth D. Benchley, Blane Nansel, Clark A. Dobbs, Susan M. Thurston Myster, and Barbara H. O'Connell.

Archaeological and Bioarchaeological Resources of the Northern Great Plains - Report, 1996 (Legacy 94-0008) pdf [38.55 MB]

This report is a review of the 12,000 years of human occupation in the Northwestern Great Plains states of Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Synthesis of the archaeological and bioarchaeological resources under the guise of human adaptation types revealed significant gaps that should be addressed by future research. George C. Grison, and Robert C. Mainfort.

Archaeology and Paleoecology of the Central Great Plains - Report, 1996 (Legacy 94-0008) pdf [38.55 MB]

This report provides a summary of the current and past environments of northern Kansas, Nebraska, and northeast Colorado (the Central Great Plains), providing a framework within which to review and discuss changes in prehistoric and historic subsistence economies, technologies, mobility/sedentism, organization, and group interactions. A traditional cultural historical summary is provided for the region from about 20,000 years ago to the historic period. Mary Adair, Matthew E. Hill, Jack L. Hofman, William C. Johnson, Karolyn K. Kinsey, William B. Lees, Brad Logan, Larry D. Martin, Douglas W. Owsley, Kyeong Park, and Karin L. Bruwelheide.

The Garden Canyon Project: Studies at Two Rockshelters at Fort Huachuca, Southeastern Arizona - Report, 1993 (Legacy Demonstration Project #21) pdf [28.15 MB]

This report includes discussions of rock art recording and analysis, and the archaeological test excavations in two small rockshelters on the Fort Huachuca military reservation. The area was occupied on repeated occasions (not permanently) as a temporary camp used while exploiting mammals and possibly wild plant foods during the 13th century. Jeffrey H. Altschul, Marie Cottrell, Clement W. Meighan, and Ronald H. Towner.

Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, Excavation and Resource Evaluation of the Miller Cave Complex - Fact Sheet (Legacy 93-585) pdf [894 KB]

This fact sheet describes archaeological work performed to determine whether this National Register-eligible site, which was previously the subject of Smithsonian excavation in 1920 and has been subjected to looting more recently, retains sufficient integrity. The archaeological work assessed the current state of preservation and the scientific potential of the sites (23PU2, 23PU235, and 23PU255), collected information that contributes to regional research issues, and developed appropriate site preservation plans. U.S. Army.