Glossary E-M

Environmental Regulators and Safety Officials. Includes, but may not be limited to environmental regulators, environmental coordinators or hazardous material coordinators, law enforcement officers, and safety personnel of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), American Indians and Alaska Natives, other Federal Land Managers, and/or the States. When appropriate, public health officials of various agencies may also be involved.

EPA: Environmental Protection Agency

Explosion. A chemical reaction of any chemical compound or mechanical mixture that, when initiated, undergoes a very rapid combustion or decomposition, releasing large volumes of highly heated gases that exert pressure on the surrounding medium. Also, a mechanical reaction in which failure of the container causes sudden release of pressure from within a pressure vessel. Depending on the rate of energy release, an explosion can be categorized as a deflagration, a detonation, or pressure rupture.

Explosive. A substance or mixture of substances that can undergo a rapid chemical change without an outside source of oxygen, generating large quantities of energy generally accompanied by hot gases.

Explosive Hazard. A condition where danger exists because explosives are present that may react (e.g., detonate, deflagrate) in a mishap with potential unacceptable effects (e.g., death, injury, damage) to people, property, operational capability, or the environment.

Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD). The detection, identification, on-site evaluation, rendering safe, recovery, and final disposal of unexploded ordnance and of other munitions that have become an imposing danger, for example, by damage or deterioration.

EOD incident. The suspected or detected presence of a UXO or damaged military munitions that constitutes a hazard to operations, installations, personnel, or material. Not included are accidental arming or other conditions that develop during the manufacture of high explosives material, technical service assembly operations, or the laying of landmines or demolition charges.

Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Personnel. Military personnel who have graduated from the Naval School, Explosive Ordnance Disposal; are assigned to a military unit with a Service-defined EOD mission; and meet Service and assigned unit requirements to perform EOD duties. EOD personnel have received specialized training to address explosive and certain CA hazards during both peacetime and wartime. EOD personnel are trained and equipped to perform Render Safe Procedures (RSP) on nuclear, biological, chemical, and conventional munitions, and on improvised explosive devices.

Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Unit. A military organization constituted by proper authority; manned with EOD personnel; outfitted with equipment required to perform EOD functions; and assigned an EOD mission.

Explosives or Munitions Emergency. An explosives or munitions emergency means a situation involving the suspected or detected presence of unexploded ordnance, damaged or deteriorated explosives or munitions, an improvised explosive device, other potentially explosive material or device, or other potentially harmful military chemical munitions or device, that creates an actual or potential imminent threat to human health, including safety, or to the environment, including property, as determined by an explosives or munitions emergency response specialist. Such situations may require immediate and expeditious action by an explosives or munitions emergency response specialist to control, mitigate, or eliminate the threat.

Explosives or Munitions Emergency Response. All immediate response activities by an explosives and munitions emergency response specialist to control, mitigate, or eliminate the actual or potential threat encountered during an explosives or munitions emergency. An explosives or munitions emergency response may include in-place render-safe procedures, treatment or destruction of the explosives or munitions, and/or transporting those items to another location to be rendered safe, treated, or destroyed. Any reasonable delay in the completion of an explosives or munitions emergency response caused by a necessary, unforeseen, or uncontrollable circumstance will not terminate the explosives or munitions emergency. Explosives and munitions emergency responses can occur on either public or private lands and are not limited to responses at RCRA facilities. (Military Munitions Rule, 40 CFR 260.10)

Explosives or Munitions Emergency Response Specialist. An individual trained in chemical or conventional munitions or explosives handling, transportation, render-safe procedures, or destruction techniques. Explosives or munitions emergency response specialists include Department of Defense (DoD) emergency explosive ordnance disposal (EOD), technical escort unit (TEU), and DoD-certified civilian or contractor personnel; and other Federal. State, or local government, or civilian personnel similarly trained in explosives or munitions emergency responses.

Explosives Safety. A condition where operational capability and readiness, people, property, and the environment are protected from the unacceptable effects or risks of potential mishaps involving military munitions.

Former Range. The MRS was an operational range that was (a) closed by a formal decision made by the Component with administrative control over the range, or (b) was put to a use that was incompatible with its continued use as an operational range. The term includes closed, transferring and transferred ranges.

Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS). Real property that was formerly owned by, leased by, possessed by, or otherwise under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Defense or the components, including organizations that predate DoD. Some FUDS properties include areas formerly used as military ranges.

Fragmentation. Term applied to military munition indicating that it is primarily intended to produce a fragmentation effect. Also, the breaking up of the confining material of a chemical compound or mechanical mixture when an explosion occurs. Fragments may be complete items, subassemblies, or pieces thereof, or pieces of equipment or buildings containing the items.

Fuze. (1) A device with explosive components designed to initiate a train of fire or detonation in a munition. (2) A nonexplosive device designed to initiate an explosion a munition.

Illumination. Term applied to munitions indicating that it is primarily intended to produce light of high intensity. Such munitions usually contains a flare and may contain a parachute for suspension in the air.

Incendiary. Any flammable material that is used as a filler in munitions that is intended to destroy a target by fire.

Interim Holding Facility (IHF). A temporary storage facility designed to hold recovered chemical warfare material (RCWM).

Land Use Controls (LUC). LUC are physical, legal, or administrative mechanisms that restrict the use of, or limit access to, real property to manage risks to human health and the environment. Physical mechanisms encompass a variety of engineered remedies to contain or reduce contamination and/or physical barriers to limit access to real property, such as fences or signs.

Long-term Management (LTMgt). The period of site management (including maintenance, monitoring, record keeping, 5-year reviews, etc.) initiated after response (removal or remedial) objectives have been met (i.e., after Response Complete).

Materiel. All items necessary for the equipment, maintenance, operation, and support of military activities without distinction as to their application for administrative or combat purposes; excludes ships or naval aircraft.

Material Potentially Presenting an Explosive Hazard (MPPEH). Material potentially containing explosives or munitions (e.g., munitions containers and packaging material; munitions debris remaining after munitions use, demilitarization, or disposal; and range-related debris); or material potentially containing a high enough concentration of explosives such that the material presents an explosive hazard (e.g., equipment, drainage systems, holding tanks, piping, or ventilation ducts that were associated with munitions production, demilitarization or disposal operations). Excluded from MPPEH are munitions within DoD’s established munitions management system and other hazardous items that may present explosion hazards (e.g., gasoline cans, compressed gas cylinders) that are not munitions and are not intended for use as munitions.

Maximum Credible Event (MCE). The worst single event that is likely to occur from a given quantity and disposition of military munitions. Used in hazards evaluation as a basis for effects calculations and casualty predictions.

Military Munitions. Military munitions means all ammunition products and components produced for or used by the armed forces for national defense and security, including ammunition products or components under the control of the Department of Defense, the U.S. Coast Guard, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the National Guard. The term includes confined gaseous, liquid, and solid propellants, explosives, pyrotechnics, chemical and riot controagents, smokes, and incendiaries, including bulk explosives, and chemical warfare agents, chemical munitions, rockets, guided and ballistic missiles, bombs, warheads, mortar rounds, artillery ammunition, small arms ammunition, grenades, mines, torpedoes, depth charges, cluster munitions and dispensers, demolition charges, and devices and components of the above.

The term does not include wholly inert items, improvised explosive devices, and nuclear weapons, nuclear devices, and nuclear components, other than non-nuclear components of nuclear devices that are managed under the nuclear weapons program of the Department of Energy after all required sanitization operations under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.) have been completed. (10 U.S.C. 101(e)(4)(A) through (C))

Military Munitions Burial Site. A site, regardless of location, where military munitions or CA, regardless of configuration, were intentionally buried, with the intent to abandon or discard. This term includes burial sites used to dispose of military munitions or CA, regardless of configuration, in a manner consistent with applicable environmental laws and regulations or the national practice at the time of burial. It does not include sites where munitions were intentionally covered with earth during authorized destruction by detonation, or where in-situ capping is implemented as an engineered remedy under an authorized response action.

Military Range. A designated land or water area set aside, managed, and used to conduct research on, develop, test, and evaluate military munitions and explosives, other ordnance, or weapon systems, or to train military personnel in their use and handling.

Ranges include firing lines and positions, maneuver areas, firing lines, test pads, detonation pads, impact areas, and buffer zones with restricted access and exclusionary areas. The definition of a military range does not include airspace, or water, or land areas underlying airspace used for training, testing, or research and development where military munitions have not been used.

Minimum Separation Distance (MSD). MSD is the distance at which personnel in the open must be from an intentional or unintentional detonation.

Munition with the Greatest Fragmentation Distance (MGFD). The munition with the greatest fragment distance that is reasonably expected (based on research or characterization) to be encountered in any particular area.

Mishap. An accident or an unexpected event involving military munitions.

Munitions Constituents (MC). Any materials originating from unexploded ordnance (UXO), discarded military munitions (DMM), or other military munitions, including explosive and non-explosive materials, and emission, degradation, or breakdown elements of such ordnance or munitions. (10 U.S.C. 2710(e)(3)).

Munitions Debris. Remnants of munitions (e.g., fragments, penetrators, projectiles, shell casings, links, fins) remaining after munitions use, demilitarization, or disposal.

Munitions and Explosives of Concern (MEC). This term, which distinguishes specific categories of military munitions that may pose unique explosives safety risks means: (A) Unexploded ordnance (UXO), as defined in 10 U.S.C. 101(e)(5); (B) Discarded military munitions (DMM), as defined in 10 U.S.C. 2710(e)(2); or (C) Munitions constituents (e.g., TNT, RDX), as defined in 10 U.S.C. 2710(e)(3), present in high enough concentrations to pose an explosive hazard.

Munitions Response. Response actions, including investigation, removal actions and remedial actions to address the explosives safety, human health, or environmental risks presented by unexploded ordnance (UXO), discarded military munitions (DMM), or munitions constituents (MC), or to support a determination that no removal or remedial action is required.

Munitions Response Area (MRA). Any area on a defense site that is known or suspected to contain UXO, DMM, or MC. Examples include former ranges and munitions burial areas. A munitions response area is comprised of one or more munitions response sites.

Munitions Response Site (MRS). A discrete location within an MRA that is known to require a munitions response.

Mutual Agreement. A meeting of the minds on a specific subject, and a manifestation of intent of the parties to do or refrain from doing some specific act or acts. Inherent in any mutual agreement or collaborative process are the acknowledgement of each member’s role in the process and their differing views of their authorities. The mutual agreement process will provide a means of resolving differences without denying the parties an opportunity to exercise their respective authorities should mutual agreement fail to be achieved.

Recognize, Retreat, Report  

RECOGNIZEwhen you may have encountered a munition.
RETREATdo not touch, move or disturb it, but carefully leave the area.
REPORTcall 911!

Last Modified: 22 December 2010 at 13:15