Candidate Species and Species at Risk
Assessing the presence and distribution of 20 Hawaiian yellow-faced bee species, currently under status review and/or designated as species of concern, on lands adjacent to military installations on Oahu and Hawaii Island (Legacy 11-104) (PDF)
The endemic Hylaeus bees are critical pollinators in native ecosystems in Hawai‘i. Seven species are proposed for listing as endangered, and many more are rare and potentially endangered. We surveyed 40 localities on O‘ahu, 56 on Hawai‘i, and approximately 70 km of the coastline of Hawai‘i for 23 species of native Hylaeus, including four added during the course of the project.
Workshop to Improve Inter-Agency Cooperation and Collaboration for Managing Sustainable Populations of Mohave Ground Squirrels - Report, January 2013 (Legacy 11-121) (PDF)
The objectives of this workshop were to: 1) improve inter-agency cooperation, collaboration, and understanding of various management and regulatory actions; 2) review and summarize the current literature for MGS and similar ground squirrel species; 3) bring together recognized experts so there could be an exchange of ideas; 4) increase the standardization and quality of field data collection so more informed, adaptive management, and regulatory decisions can be made; 5) seek the input of workshop participants on how to enhance conservation efforts for MGS through improvements in field methodologies, protocols, and management strategies and to map a course to implement these ideas through a conservation strategy; 6) distribute information from the workshop to natural resource managers and regulatory personnel and other interested parties involved in the conservation of MGS through website posting(s); 7) provide a base from which other future discussions, meetings, and information exchanges will happen; and 8) develop a technical report that discusses the viewpoints of workshop participants on how best to standardize field protocols to survey and detect MGS and to monitor population trends, and a number of other topic areas. This report details the workshop and includes recommendations and an appendix with all PowerPoint presentations. NOTE: Appendices are not included in this version due to size constraints, but they are available upon request. Please email firstname.lastname@example.org to request a copy.
Cerulean Warbler Occurrence Atlas - Report, December 2011 (Legacy 10-429) (PDF)
Cerulean Warbler Occurrence Atlas for Military Installations - Final Report, December 2011 (Legacy 10-429). The Cerulean Warbler Occurrence Atlas for Military Installations will evaluate the CERW status on all Department of Defense (DoD) lands with appropriate habitat that fall within the species’ breeding range (plus a 100-mile buffer). This will allow the DoD to manage proactively for CERW and to forge partnerships with state-level entities concerned with rare neotropical migrants, such as Important Bird Area programs and natural resource agencies. This report details the second year of a three-year effort.
Le Conte's Thrasher (Toxostoma lecontei) Occupancy and Distribution - Report (Legacy 10-343) (PDF)
Le Conte’s Thrasher (Toxostoma lecontei) Occupancy and Distribution: Barry M. Goldwater Range and Yuma Proving Ground in Southwestern Arizona - Year One Final Report, September 2012 (Legacy 10-343). Le Conte’s Thrasher is an uncommon permanent resident of sparsely vegetated landscapes within the San Joaquin Valley, Kern River basin, Owens Valley, Mojave Desert, and the Lower Colorado River Valley subdivision of the Sonoran Desert biotic community in the southwestern United States. This species is listed as a Bird of Conservation Concern by US Fish and Wildlife and is a ranked species by CA and AZ. Anthropogenic disturbances within the distribution of the Le Conte’s thrasher (e.g., military training, recreational activity, habitat fragmentation, etc.) have the potential to cause direct mortality and reduce habitat quality through impacts to vegetation structure and soil characteristics. While impacts to habitat on active military training areas can be substantial, these ranges provide important refuges for thrashers and their habitat.
Species at Risk on Department of Defense Lands: Updated Analysis, Report, and Maps - Final Report, July 2011 (Legacy 10-247) (PDF)
This analysis represents an update of a previous analysis by NatureServe funded by the Department of Defense Legacy Program that was based on 2002 species location data. A key finding of this updated 2011 assessment is that the total number of species at risk on DoD lands remained similar to the numbers based on the 2002 data (519 species at risk were reported in 2011, compared to 523 species reported in the 2004 report), despite an increase of over 25,000 new species at risk element occurrences in NatureServe's databases since 2002. A set of detailed excel spreadsheets accompany this report and are presented separately.
Landscape-Level Habitat Associations and Phylogenetics of Desert Tortoises on Southwestern Arizona Military Ranges Managed by the Army, Air Force, and Marines - Final Report, March 2012 (Legacy 09-385) (PDF)
Given the possibility of future ESA listing and the challenges that such a decision would impose upon the Department of Defense (DoD), it is prudent to understand the distribution of desert tortoises on military ranges within the Sonoran Desert so that appropriate management decisions can be made to reduce conflicts while maintaining the military readiness mission. The primary objective of this study was to develop a landscape-level predictive habitat model for desert tortoises inhabiting the Yuma Proving Ground and Barry M. Goldwater Range in southwestern Arizona. The secondary objective of this study was to characterize the phylogenetic grouping of desert tortoises inhabiting these DoD managed lands. This report contains methods, models, results and a set of detailed maps.
Strategy for the Cooperative Recovery of Rare Species Affecting Training Ranges - Final Report, November 2011 (Legacy 09-213) (PDF)
The project's primary objective is to maintain military training flexibility by precluding the need for Endangered Species Act listing of the four candidate species that occur on the grasslands of Joint Base Lewis-McChord: Taylor's checkerspot and Mardon skipper butterflies, the streaked horned lark, and Mazama pocket gopher. The project works toward this goal by promoting cooperative ecoregional recovery of these rare species throughout their range in order to share the burden of species recovery over a variety of partners and locations. This report describes the project's achievements, evaluates cooperative conservation techniques as a whole, and includes lessons learned.
Strategy for the Cooperative Recovery of Rare Species Affecting Training Ranges: Native Seed Production Strategy - A Key Piece of Puget Sound Prairie Conservation (Legacy 09-213) (PDF)
Restoration and active management is a critical conservation strategy for South Sound prairies. The majority of remaining prairie sites have been degraded due to the invasion of pest plants, fire suppression and other threats. Restoration on these sites has progressed through initial control efforts for most pest plants and is now in the process of shifting to enhancement of native species, especially to create habitat for several of the rarest species in the prairies, the prairie butterflies. Direct seeding of species, especially after sufficient site preparation, is a successful technique. In order to restore habitat at scale a sufficient source of native seed is needed yearly.
Cerulean Warbler Occurrence Atlas for Military Installations - Report Year One, December 2009 (Legacy 09-429) (PDF)
The Cerulean Warbler (CERW, Dendroica cerulea) is a small wood-warbler that nests and forages in the upper canopy of mature forests. Current information indicates that CERW are declining. The Cerulean Warbler Occurrence Atlas for military installations will evaluate the CERW status on all DoD lands with appropriate habitat that fall within the species breeding range (plus a 100-mile buffer). This will allow DoD to manage proactively for CERW and to forge partnerships with state-level entities concerned with rare Neotropical migrants, such as Important Bird Areas programs and natural resource agencies. The long-term goal of all CERW management activities is to support the population and to prevent the federal listing of the CERW under the Endangered Species Act. This report details the first year efforts for this project.
Propagation of Species At Risk Atlantic Pigtoe on Military Installations-Final Report April 2010 (Legacy 09-450) (PDF)
The Department of Army has identified the Atlantic Pigtoe Mussel as a Species at Risk (SAR) with potential for detrimental impact on the military mission if federally listed as either threatened or endangered. The Nottoway River on ARNG-MTC Fort Pickett, VA is home to one of only two known stable populations of the Atlantic Pigtoe Mussel left in Virginia, and perhaps the world. Populations are in precipitous decline throughout the southeast, and expert consensus is that the species currently warrants federal listing. This project details the first year's efforts towards propagating the species and introducing new populations into its habitat
Migratory Linkages of Burrowing Owls on DoD Installations and Adjacent Lands - Final Report, December 2010 (Legacy 09-243) (PDF)
Burrowing Owl populations have declined throughout the Western U.S. and Canada, and they have been extirpated from the periphery of their breeding range. Despite these declines, they appear to be increasing in other areas. This project seeks an explanation for this paradox. That is, breeding populations might be redistributing themselves rather than declining. This report details the findings of this 5 year effort. This work provides a landscape-scale view of movements among Burrowing Owl populations which will allow conservation managers to direct their efforts appropriately. This information is vital to supporting the military mission because it will help identify the management role of DoD for conserving this species in the U.S., potentially help prevent further listing efforts for a species that is still rather common on DoD installations, and document movement patterns of a bird that breeds on many DoD installations in the region.
Migratory Linkages of Burrowing Owls on DoD Installations and Adjacent Lands - Final Report, 2005-2008 (Legacy 05 through 08-243) (PDF)
Some populations of Burrowing Owls have declined to the decree that listed may be a possibility. Burrowing Owls breed and/or overwinter on dozens of DoD installations throughout the western U.S. and, hence, any changes in their status may affect the military mission.
Digital Radio Telemetry Monitoring of San Nicolas Island Foxes - Final Report, December 2008 (Legacy 07-308) (PDF)
This report details the second year of a project demonstrating an efficient method for tracking daily survival of a large number of island foxes on San Nicolas Island, CA. The first goal of this project was to demonstrate a labor-saving novel technology to efficiently monitor the daily survival of a large sample of island foxes. The second goal was to develop mortality thresholds which trigger increasingly intensive management response when natural mortality rates are exceeded.
Legacy Bird Species at Risk Monitoring in and around Camp Navajo and the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, AZ Final Report, October, 2010 (07-344) (PDF)
Two Department of Defense installations, Camp Navajo Army Depot and Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station are located approximately 10 miles west of Flagstaff, Arizona. This study focused on determining the effects of forest thinning on Cordilleran and Olive-sided Flycatchers, and other bird species as to inform proper management to prevent further listing of wildlife residing on DOD properties. The report provides management recommendations to guide the conservation efforts for these priority bird species within the project area, while preserving the military mission for both installations.
Migratory Linkages of Burrowing Owls on DoD Installations and Adjacent Lands: Report December 2006 (Legacy 06-243) (PDF)
This report details the project Objectives that include locating Burrowing Owl nests on DoD installations throughout the western U.S., determine the migratory linkages and connectivity of Burrowing Owl populations on DoD installations and adjacent lands, determine where Burrowing Owls nesting on DoD installations and adjacent lands spend the winter, estimate the extent to which individual owls move among populations, and bring together a wide assortment of national and international partners to identify migratory linkages and prevent further population declines and listing efforts. This work will provide a landscape level view of movements among Burrowing Owl populations which will allow conservation managers to direct their efforts appropriately.
State Wildlife Action Plans: Shaping National Fish And Wildlife Conservation - Final Report, April 2011 (Legacy: 07-338) (PDF)
The objective of this project was to review State Wildlife Action Plans to identify key threats and conservation actions of national significance that are shared by the states and territories.
Species at Risk on Department of Defense Installations in the Carolinas - Final Report, October 2010 (Legacy 07-348) (PDF)
This project identifies priority habitat areas for Species at Risk (SAR)likely to be found on military reservations in the Carolinas, and identified thirteen species at risk for evaluation. These species occur in and around military installations on Onslow Bight in North Carolina and/or in the vicinity of Fort Jackson in South Carolina. Three of the thirteen species were targeted for habitat modeling that includes the mimic glass lizard, northern pine snake, and the southern hognose snake. Basic habitat and threat information, resource management guidelines, and recommendations for future modeling are included for the remaining SAR.
Migratory linkages of Burrowing Owls on DoD Installations and Adjacent Lands: Where do Owls Breeding on DoD Installations in the Southwestern U.S. Spend the Winter? (Legacy 05 and 06-243) (PDF)
This report details progress during 2005-2006 on project that seeks to locate Burrowing Owl nests on Department of Defense installations throughout the western U.S., determine the migratory linkages and connectivity of Burrowing Owl populations on DoD installations and adjacent lands, Determine where Burrowing Owls nesting on DoD installations and adjacent lands spend the winter, and estimate the extent to which individual owls move among populations, both among DoD installations and between DoD installations and lands managed by other entities.
Remote Monitoring of Island Foxes (Legacy 06-308) (PDF)
This report details an innovative radio-telemetry system for monitoring San Nicolas Island foxes through a DoD Legacy funded research and demonstration project on San Nicolas Island off the coast of California. It describes monitoring efforts and accomplishments using this system, summarize the results of the first year of intensively monitoring fox survival, and develop a preliminary set of monitoring-based criteria to trigger management actions based on these results. Includes a discussion of ways in which the system can be improved and new developments to be implemented in the second year of this project.
Prescribed Burns and Their Effects on Threatened and Endangered Species With Emphasis on the Eastern Box Turtle, Terrapene C. Carolina (Legacy 05-271) (PDF)
This report summarizes preliminary findings from year one of field studies on the ecology of the Eastern Box Turtle (Terrapene c. carolina) on the Fort Custer Training Center (FCTC) in south central Michigan. This study was initiated to investigate the impacts of prescribed burning on resident herpetofaunal populations by examining patterns of movement and habitat use of the Eastern Box Turtle using radiotelemetry. This report provides a discussion of data collected to date, as well as management recommendations intended to promote the conservation of the Eastern Box Turtle, as well as other herpetofaunal species found on the FCTC, including those that are listed as threatened and endangered such as the Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake (Sistrurus c. catenatus), Spotted Turtle (Clemmys guttata), and Blandings Turtle (Emydoidea blandingii).
Species at Risk Final Report (Legacy 04-154) (PDF)
Georgia Species at Risk Project-June 2009 Final Report (04-154): The primary objective of the of project was to map potential habitats for Species at Risk at Fort Benning, Fort Gordon, Townsend Bombing Range, Robins Air Force Base, Fort Stewart, and Kings Bay Submarine Base, both on the bases themselves and within buffer zones, and to identify management activities that might benefit these species/habitats. This report presents a set of management recommendations for Species at Risk and their associated habitats, especially at the Ecological Systems level.
Coastal Goldenrod: Management Guidelines For Species At Risk On Department Of Defense Installations-April 2004 Report (Legacy 03-154) (PDF)
This report characterizes Solidago villosicarpa, A Species at Risk and how to manage for it.
Island Fox Management Guidelines For Species At Risk On Department Of Defense September 2004 Report (Legacy 03-154) (PDF)
This report characterizes the Island fox, Urocyon littoralis, A Species at Risk and how to manage for it.
Round-leaf Four-O'clock: Management Guidelines For Species At Risk On Department Of Defense Installations - Report, September 2004 (Legacy 03-154) (PDF)
This report characterizes the Round-leaf four-o'clock (Oxybaphus rotundifolius), a Species at Risk and how to manage for it.
Species at Risk on Department of Defense Installations-Revised Report and Documentation - January 2004 (Legacy 03-154) (PDF)
This report provides two major types of analyses (1) analyses of species at risk that occur only or mostly on DOD lands or that are otherwise highly dependent on DOD management for their survival, and (2) analyses of installations with high numbers or densities of species at risk. These analyses aim to help DOD to direct resources towards both high priority species at risk and high priority installations. (This report is an update and revision extension of the report completed by NatureServe for the Department of Defense in July 2002, 'Species of Concern on Department of Defense Installations')
Species at Risk on Department of Defense Installations-January 2004 Appendix 2: Summarized identification and status information of all species at risk occurring on DOD installations. Excel Spreadsheet Version (Legacy 03-154) (XLS)
Species at Risk on DoD Installations-January 2004 Appendix 3: Comprehensive information pertaining to species at risk, including information about their conservation status, biology, habitat, and installations where they are found. (Legacy 03-154) (XLS)
Species at Risk on DoD Installations-January 2004 Appendix 4: Summary of DoD installations with species at risk, including the number of species at risk found on installations and installation size (square miles). (Legacy 03-154) (XLS)
Species at Risk on DoD Installations-January 2004 Appendix 5: List of DoD installations with species at risk. See Appendix 3 for additional information about species biology and habitat requirements. (Legacy 03-154) (XLS)
Species at Risk on DoD Installations-January 2004 Appendix 7: A comparison of installation lists with Integrated Natural Resource Management Plans (INRMP) and those installations found on the USGS reference layer. (Legacy 03-154) (XLS)
Species at Risk on DoD Installations-January 2004 - Master List of DoD installations with species at risk, including comprehensive information about the species at risk that occur on them. (Legacy 03-154) (XLS)
Conservation Resources for Prairie and Oak Woodland Landowners Brochure (The Nature Conservancy) (PDF)
In support of Legacy Project: Strategy for the Cooperative Recovery of Rare Species Affecting Training Ranges (with the primary objective to preclude the need for listing of species under the ESA of federal candidate species that occur on the grasslands of Fort Lewis and McChord Air Force Base by promoting cooperative ecosystem recovery) this brochure gives valuable information to the public regarding conservation of prairies in the pacific northwest and incentives available for conservation efforts.
Florida Bog Frog: Management Guidelines For Species At Risk On Department Of Defense Installations (PDF)
This report characterizes The Florida bog frog, Rana okaloosae, A Species at Risk and how to manage for it.
Assessing the value of Department of Defense Lands in Alaska to a Declining Species, the Rusty Blackbird (Legacy 07-337) (PDF)
The goals of the project were to evaluate the value of military installations in Alaska to breeding Rusty Blackbirds by determining habitats with high breeding occurrence, nest abundance, and reproductive success. Also evaluated were the incidence of disease, parasites, and contaminants within the population.
Fact Sheet: Species at Risk (SAR) Assessment and Recommendations: Part II Planning and Management (PDF)
This fact sheet summarizes a project that identified targeted SAR, determined the steps necessary to prevent any further declines in the population of the species of concern on or near the targeted military installation, expanded SAR identification to all military installations, including National Guard, targeted one of the original four target species for follow-up work, and promoted the coordination of a Grassland partnership.
Pamphlet: DoD Legacy Project: Migratory Linkages of Burrowing Owls (PDF)
This 2 page publication summarizes the objectives, goals, benefits, and those involved in this 4 year project that studies burrowing owls, a species at risk in the southwest.
Speeches and Presentations
Species at Risk on DoD Lands: Updated Maps and Analyses, July 27, 2011 (Legacy 10-247) (PDF)
This presentation, given at the 2011 Sustaining Military Readiness Conference (TN), summarizes the findings of the update to the 2001 DoD Species at Risk project in maps, graphs and charts.
PowerPoint Presentation: Migratory Linkages of Burrowing Owls on DoD installations and adjacent lands (PPT)
This 13 slide presentation presents the hypothesis that this species is redistributing populations in the southwest rather than declining and outlines the methods that will be employed during the course of the project to gather data to corroborate or disprove this hypothesis.
Presentation: Breeding habitat use and reproductive ecology of Rusty Blackbird (DOC)
This presentation details the goals methods and findings of a study on the decline of the Rusty Blackbird.
Species at Risk on Department of Defense Lands: Updated Analysis, Report, and Maps - Final Report, July 2011. Appendix 5.2: Summarized Identification and Status Information of all Species at Risk Occurring on DoD Installations (Legacy 10-247) (XLS)
This excel spreadsheet lists all plant and wildlife Species At Risk now occurring on DoD Lands. Data provided includes Common Name, Scientific Name, G Rank and any current ESA status.
Strategy for the Cooperative Recovery of Rare Species Affecting Training Ranges: Taylor's Checkerspot Butterfly - 2009 and 2010 Working Group Meeting Minutes, March 2011 (Legacy 09-213) (PDF)
This document contains valuable information on this species in the Pacific Northwest, with regards to various recovery and monitoring efforts.
Strategy for the Cooperative Recovery of Rare Species Affecting Training Ranges: Streaked Horn Lark - 2010 Workshop Proceedings and 2009-2010 Working Group Meeting Minutes, March 2011 (Legacy 09-213) (PDF)
This document contains valuable information on this species in the Pacific Northwest, both in the 2010 workshop proceedings and the Working Group meeting minutes.
Strategy for the Cooperative Recovery of Rare Species Affecting Training Ranges: Mazama Pocket Gopher - 2009 Workshop Proceedings and 2010 Working Group Meeting, March 2011 (Legacy 09-213) (PDF)
This document contains valuable information on this species in the Pacific Northwest, with regards to various recovery and monitoring efforts and future strategies presented in and developed from the 2009 workshop and 2010 Working Group meeting.