DENIX
Perchlorate

Perchlorate

DoD Perchlorate Handbook, Revision 1, Change 1 August 2007
 
The Department of Defense (DoD) Environmental Data Quality Workgroup (EDQW) prepared the DoD Perchlorate Handbook to assist DoD facilities in complying with current DoD policy governing perchlorate sampling and testing activities for both environmental restoration/cleanup and compliance monitoring programs. Intended users of this document include DoD Remedial Project Managers (RPMs), contractor project managers, and field-sampling personnel. This handbook includes guidance on the following:

  • Using conceptual site models (CSMs) to develop project quality objectives (PQOs) associated with sampling and analysis for perchlorate,
  • Designing sampling strategies and implementing appropriate sampling techniques,
  • Selecting qualified analytical laboratories and analytical methods, based on required performance objectives, and
  • Documenting the above in project planning documents in accordance with the Uniform Federal Policy for Quality Assurance Project Plans, March 2005 (UFP-QAPP).

The Handbook was revised May 2007 to:

  • Reflect the release of EPA Methods 6850 and 6860
  • Remove references to UCMR 2
  • Remove information about proposed changes to methods associated with UCMR 2
  • Update Appendix G to be consistent with Methods 6850 and 6860
  • Update Appendix G Quality Control requirements.

The Handbook was changed in August 2007 to update some referenced links to websites and fix a few editorial errors

DoD Perchlorate Handbook

Sampling and Testing for Perchlorate at DoD installations Interim Guidance, February 2004

The 29 September 2003 Interim Policy directed DoD Components to continue to consolidate data on the occurrence of perchlorate at active and closed installations, ranges, and Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS). The < Interim Testing and>provides interim guidance developed by the Department of Defense Environmental Data Quality Work Group (EDQw) to assist Components in complying with the Interim Policy. In particular, the guidance is intended to alert installations and data users about the limitations of currently approved EPA Methods 314.0 and SW 846-9058 (draft), the potential for false positives, and the need to verify results by alternate, definitive performance-based methods, such as those employing Mass Spectrometry technology.

The EDQW is in the process of developing detailed guidance for the characterization of perchlorate under Environmental Restoration and Range Assessment programs, expected to be issued late in FY 04.

Sampling and Testing Interim Guidance

New Approaches to Perchlorate Analysis IDQTF/EDQW Forum

As a follow up to the Joint IDQTF/DoD EDQW Roundtable on the State of the Art in Analysis of Perchlorate in Environmental Samples, the DoD Environmental Data Quality Workgroup (EDQW) and the Intergovernmental Data Quality Task Force (IDQTF) held a Perchlorate Session at the EPA Region 6 Quality Assurance (QA) Conference on October 20th 2004.

The presentations at the session included:  

Announcements

EPA Health Advisory for Perchlorate - Jan 2009 pdf [361 KB]

EPA report on new Health Advisory Goal for perchlorate issued Jan 8, 2009

FDA perchlorate total diet Study Questions and Answers doc [78 KB]
FDA total diet study - Talking points doc [52 KB]

General Information

Findings from Perchlorate Sampling - Article from EM Journal pdf [536 KB]

Article co-authored by California Regulators and DoD personnel summarizes the process and findings of DoD-CA perchlorate prioritization effort and national efforts to find out if DoD a major contributor to perchlorate found in drinking water supplies.

Reports

AFIERA slides pdf [757 KB]

Ecological Effects of Perchlorate

A Hybrid System to Remove Perchlorate From Drinking Waters pdf [424 KB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

Ammonium Perchlorate Workers pdf [917 KB]

Perchlorate Human Health Effects Materials

Amphibian Metamorphosis ppt [2.46 MB]

Ecological Effects of Perchlorate

ATSDR Draft profile pdf [2.19 MB]

Perchlorate Human Health Effects Materials

ATSDR Staff Report on Genetic Factors and Perchlorate pdf [339 KB]

Genetic Factors that Might Lead to Different Responses in Individuals Exposed to Perchlorate Franco Scinicariello, H. Edward Murray, Lester Smith, Sharon Wilbur, and Bruce A. Fowler doi:10.1289/ehp.8076 (available at http://dx.doi.org/)

August 2007 pdf [523 KB]

DoD Perchlorate Handbook Aug 2007

AWWA Report 2005 pdf [2.93 MB]

AWWA report on sources of perchlorate in the environment.

Biological Treatment of Groundwater Containing Perchlorate Using Fluidized Bed Reactors pdf [515 KB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

Bioremediation of Perchlorate in Groundwater and Reverse Osmosis Rejectates pdf [207 KB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

Biotreatment of Perchlorate in Groundwater pdf [1.38 MB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

Braverman pdf [112 KB]

Perchlorate Human Health Effects Materials

CDC Q and A doc [29 KB]

This document is for use by CDC officials responding to press inquiries - however it is also useful for any DoD official that is speaking to stakeholders about perchlorate.

Commercial Systems Treating both High and Low Strength Perchlorate Applications Utilizing Ion Exchange pdf [427 KB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

Cost-Effective Bioremediation of Perchlorate in Soil and Groundwater pdf [1.37 MB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

Cover Letter to 2005 Report to Congress pdf [333 KB]

DoD 2005 Report to Congress on perchlorate in the southwest. DoD cover letter

Efficient Removal of Perchlorate From Contaminated Water by Highly Selective Regenerable Bifunctional Resins pdf [868 KB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

Efficient Removal of Perchlorate From Contaminated Water by Highly Selective Regenerable Bifunctional Resins Abstract pdf [20 KB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

Enhanced Natural Attenuation of Perchlorate in Soils Using Electrokinetic Injection pdf [380 KB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

EPA Draft ERD pdf [2.55 MB]

Perchlorate Human Health Effects Materials

EPA Fert. Study May 2001 pdf [365 KB]

EPA study on the potential natural and man-made sources of perchlorate in the environment.

EPA presentation pdf [36 KB]

Perchlorate Handbook memo to DASs 1 May 06.pdf

EPA Study 2 pdf [102 KB]

EPA study on the potential natural and man-made sources of perchlorate in the environment.

Perchlorate Removal Using Tailored Granular Activated Carbon and Chemical Regeneration pdf [64 KB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

Perchlorate Southwest pdf [1.53 MB]

DoD 2005 Report to Congress on perchlorate in the southwest

Perchlorate Thyroid NHANES 01-02.pdf pdf [378 KB]

Urinary Perchlorate and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Adolescent and Adult Men and Women Living in the United States

Perchlorate Treatment Technologies pdf [480 KB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

Perchlorate_White Paper_Final_32.doc doc [96 KB]

The white paper summarizes the presentations, discussions and future initiatives from the April 2006 Seminar on Perchlorate in Groundwater: Time to Put New Technology to Work that was hosted by the Water Resources Institute and the Office of Technology Transfer and Commercialization at California State University, San Bernardino, CA. As a result of issues expressed at the Seminar, the next endeavor will be assembling an expert panel to prepare a Guide for Implementing New Technologies in Groundwater Treatment for water providers, researchers and responsible parties to guide newcomers through the regulatory process which involves multiple agencies.

Pilot Treatability Study Aerojet Sacramento, CA pdf [1.15 MB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

Propellant Residues on Ranges pdf [9.96 MB]

Study on the potential natural and man-made sources of perchlorate in the environment.

Regulation of Perchlorate under the SDWA - 2001 ppt [169 KB]

Information regarding the regulation of perchlorate by federal and state agencies.

Relative Source Contributions to the Food Chain for perchlorate pdf [20 KB]

Relative Source Contributions to the Food Chain for perchlorate

Removal of Perchlorate from Groundwater at the Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant pdf [1.76 MB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

Review: Individuals respond to perchlorate differently pdf [87 KB]

Perchlorate has been detected in groundwater in many parts of the United States, and recent detection in vegetable and dairy food products indicates that contamination by perchlorate is more widespread than previously thought. Perchlorate is a competitive

SERDP Perchlorate Research pdf [153 KB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

SERDP Report pdf [433 KB]

SERDP study on the potential natural and man-made sources of perchlorate in the environment.

smoking and perchlorate pdf [139 KB]

Perchlorate Human Health Effects Materials

Survey of Fertilizers and Related Materials for Perchlorate pdf [717 KB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

Technical Status Report Perchlorate Treatment Technologies First Edition pdf [543 KB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

TERA Peer Review ppt [140 KB]

Perchlorate Human Health Effects Materials

The influence of Humeric Substances and Sulfate on the Removal of Perchlorate from a GW by Ion-Exchange Resins pdf [622 KB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

Thyroid Function in Newborns doc [2.26 MB]

Perchlorate Human Health Effects Materials

Time-Release Electron Donor Technology for the Accelerated Bioremediation of Perchlorate pdf [213 KB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

Titanous Ions Destroy Perchlorates pdf [99 KB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

Treatment of Perchlorate and Other Contaminants to Produce Drinking Water pdf [1.15 MB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

University of South Florida Review doc [1.48 MB]

Perchlorate Human Health Effects Materials

US DoD Perchlorate Treatment Technology Workshop San Antonio, Texas pdf [909 KB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

USGS Report pdf [34 KB]

USGS study on the potential natural and man-made sources of perchlorate in the environment.

Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable General Meeting pdf [57 KB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

Fertilizer from Chile puts perchlorate on the table pdf [131 KB]

Study on the potential natural and man-made sources of perchlorate in the environment.

GAO Sampling Tracking for Perchlorate May 2005 pdf [2.31 MB]

GAO Reports and Letters on sampling tracking for perchlorate, May 2005.

Gaps by TERA ppt [56 KB]

Perchlorate Human Health Effects Materials

GREEN PYROTECHNIC FLARE COMPOSITIONS pdf [319 KB]

Information on perchlorate replacements including research and development on replacements.

In Situ Bioremediation ppt [1.34 MB]

SERDP Funded R and D on Perchlorate

In Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate in Groundwater pdf [757 KB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

In-Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate in Groundwater pdf [546 KB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

In Situ Perchlorate Bioremediation for Soil and Groundwater pdf [1.40 MB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

In Situ Removal of Perchlorate From Groundwater pdf [115 KB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

IPSC Eco Subcommittee pdf [71 KB]

Ecological Effects of Perchlorate

Israel Health Study pdf [133 KB]

Regulating Perchlorate CIO43 in Drinking Water: Protecting Public Health Gary Winston and Yona Amitai Departments of Environmental Health and Mother, Child, and Adolescent Health, Israel Ministry of Health, Jerusalem.

M115A2 Ground Burst Simulator and M116A1 Hand Grenade pdf [370 KB]

Information on perchlorate replacements including research and development on replacements.

March 2006 Draft Final pdf [1.40 MB]

DoD Perchlorate Handbook March 2006

May 2007 Update pdf [523 KB]

DoD Perchlorate Handbook May 2007

Mechanisms of Perchlorate Degradation: An Overview pdf [124 KB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

Mechanistic Data pdf [2.40 MB]

Perchlorate Human Health Effects Materials

Navy Involvement with Perchlorate Issues and an Overview of Activities at Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant McGregor, TX pdf [1.74 MB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

Neonatal T4 Thyroxine pdf [145 KB]

Perchlorate Human Health Effects Materials

Newborn to Cancer ppt [4.49 MB]

Perchlorate Human Health Effects Materials

Nonpoint Sources of Perchlorate pdf [19 KB]

Study on the Nonpoint Sources of Perchlorate in the environment.

Oregon Draft HC pdf [383 KB]

A draft health consultation of an exposure investigation regarding perchlorate. It stems from a Health Consultation that was conducted in Oregon and released in December 2006.

Oregon Perchlorate EI summary doc [38 KB]

A summary of an exposure investigation regarding perchlorate. It stems from a Health Consultation that was conducted in Oregon and released in December 2006.

Pathology pdf [118 KB]

Perchlorate Human Health Effects Materials

Perchlorate Behavior in a Municipal Lake Following Fireworks Displays pdf [185 KB]

Perchlorate salts of potassium and ammonium are the primary oxidants in pyrotechnic mixtures, yet insufficient information is available regarding the relationship between fireworks displays and the environmental occurrence of perchlorate.

Perchlorate Degradation in Bench- and Pilot-Scale Ex-Situ Reactors pdf [2.23 MB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

Perchlorate Exposure are Safe for Pregnant Women pdf [62 KB]

Perchlorate ATA News 6 Oct 2007 press release on pregnant women

Perchlorate Exposure of the US Population 2001 2002.pdf pdf [188 KB]

Perchlorate Exposure of the US Population

Perchlorate in Groundwater pdf [1.16 MB]

Information related to various treatment technologies for perchlorate.

Perchlorate Isotope Analysis pdf [24 KB]

Study on the potential natural and man-made sources of perchlorate in the environment.

Policy

EPA 2008 Revised Assessment Guidance on Perchlorate pdf [73 KB]

EPA JAn 2009 guidance update on Assessment of Perchlorate.

News

American Thyroid Assoc New Release pdf [62 KB]

Contrary to Previous Studies, Low Levels of Perchlorate Exposure Are Safe For Pregnant Women. New Release from ATA, October 2007

Presentations

Background Concentrations of Perchlorate and its Impact on Site Assessment pdf [2.00 MB]

A presentation entitled, Background Concentrations of Perchlorate and its Impact on Site Assessment, by Andrew Jackson, Srinath Rajagopalan, Balaji Rao, Todd Anderson, Ken Rainwater,(Water Resources Center, Texas Tech University) David Stonestrom, Lynne Fahlquist, Greta Orris (United States Geological Survey) and Greg Harvey (USAF)

Biomonitoring Data on Thyroid-Active Compounds: Database and Issues Regarding pdf [502 KB]

Presentation slides from Biomonitoring Data on Thyroid-Active Compounds: Database and Issues Regarding Variability and Interpretation, by Ben Blount, Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
May 2008

Meetings

References

Alternative Causes of Widespread, Low Concentration Perchlorate Impacts to Gro pdf [433 KB]

A report on Alternative Causes of Widespread, Low Concentration Perchlorate Impacts to Groundwater, Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), 5 May 2005

ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Perchlorates, September 2008 pdf [4.83 MB]

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has released a final perchlorate toxicological profile. The 299 page profile discusses health effects public health risk of perchorate exposure. The profile includes a Minimal Risk Level for oral exposures with a chronic reference dose (RfD) of 0.0007 mg/kg/day for the chronic oral MRL for the perchlorate anion. This value is based on a 2005 National Academy of Sciences report and is the value that EPA has also adopted. The results from newer studies did not change ATSDRs bottom-line recommendation.

Blount NHANES perchlorate study - SOT symposium presentation pdf [231 KB]

Dr. Blount has graciously provided the presentation on good faith that it will not be misquoted or quoted out of context. We request that anyone who receives these presentations and wishes to cite, quote or otherwise use them contact the presenter. Although as a govt employee I would think this ppt was public.

Breast Milk Iodine and Perchlorate Concentrations pdf [96 KB]

Perchlorate exposure was not significantly correlated with breast milk iodine concentrations. Perchlorate was detectable in infant formula, but at lower levels than in breast milk. 47% of women sampled may have been providing breast milk with insufficient iodine to meet infants requirements.

Effect of Iodine Status and Gender on Perchlorate Inhibition of Iodine Uptake pdf [165 KB]

Powerpoint from SOT meeting on perchlorate risk assessment. Not for wide distribution - material will be placed in press.

EHP Doug Crawford-Brown pdf [138 KB]

Intersubject Variability of Risk from Perchlorate in Community Water Supplies

EPA study of perchlorate impacts on brain development pdf [295 KB]

This study concludes that there is irreparable damage to brain function from developmental exposure to perchlorate. However the studies are down 4x greater than environmental exposures

EST vitamins perchlorate pdf [31 KB]

EST article on vitamins and perchlorate

Summary of Parker, et al. (2008) Perchlorate in groundwater: doc [20 KB]

Parker, et al. (2008) Perchlorate in groundwater: A synoptic survey of pristine sites in the coterminus United States. Environ. Sci. Technol. 42(5): 1465-1471. Authors used a network of volunteers to collect 326 groundwater samples, avoiding areas of EAP-documented use or release. Of the 326 samples, 147 (45%) were below the method detection limit (40 ng/L), 42 (13%) were between the MDL and the method reporting limit (120 ng/L). Of the 137 samples that could be quantified, most (109) contained less than 1000 ng/L of perchlorate; the remaining 28 contained from 1000-10,400 ng/L. Perchlorate concentrations were positively-correlated with nitrate levels, but not with chloride concentrations.

Summary of Tran, et al. 2008 article on active transport of perchlorate into t doc [20 KB]

Tran, N., et al. (2008) Thyroid stimulating hormone increases active transport of perchlorate into thyroid cells. Am J. Physiol Endocrinol. Metab., 26 Feb 2008 (e-pub ahead of publication). Using an in vitro system, authors found that perchlorate is actively transported into thyroid cells, and this transport increases in a dose-related manner when treated with TSH. Addition of iodine appeared to competitively-inhibit perchlorate transport. The highest concentration of perchlorate, 100 micromole/L, did not inhibit cell proliferation over a 72 hour period.

Ting et al 2006 EHP Perchlorate pdf [659 KB]

An article from the Journal Env. Health Perspectives from Ting et al that describes the basis for the Calif. public health goal of 6 ppb in water.

Evaluation of the EPA Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) for Perchlorate pdf [248 KB]

Technical paper, Evaluation of the U.S. EPA/OSWER Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) for Perchlorate in Groundwater: Focus on Exposure to Nursing Infants the authors (Gary L. Ginsberg, Dale B. Hattis, R. Thomas Zoeller and Deborah C. Rice).

Howd on Perchlorate at SOT perchlorate symposium pdf [626 KB]

Dr. Howd has graciously provided the presentation on good faith that it will not be misquoted or quoted out of context. We request that anyone who receives these presentations and wishes to cite, quote or otherwise use them contact the presenter at the provided email addresses beforehand.

Lamm ppt on Perchlorate at SOT perchlorate sypmosium pdf [105 KB]

Dr. Lamm has graciously provided the presentation on good faith that it will not be misquoted or quoted out of context. We request that anyone who receives these presentations and wishes to cite, quote or otherwise use them contact the presenter at the provided email addresses beforehand.